Split personality – Multiple Personality Disorder
“Split personality”, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is a disorder characterized by having at least one “alter” personality that controls behaviour. The “alters” are said to occur spontaneously and involuntarily, and function more or less independently of each other. Some individuals with DID have been found to have personality states that have different ways of reacting, in terms of emotions, pulse, blood pressure, and blood flow to the brain. This disorder was formerly called multiple personality disorder (MPD) and is often referred to as split personality disorder. Dissociative identity disorder is an effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that alternately control a person’s behaviour, and is accompanied by memory impairment for important information not explained by ordinary forgetfulness. These symptoms are not accounted for by substance abuse, seizures, and other medical conditions. Diagnosis is often difficult as there is considerable comorbidity with other mental disorders.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly called multiple personality disorder (MPD) or split personality, is an illness that is characterized by the presence of at least two clear personality states, called alters, which may have different reactions, emotions, and body functioning. Symptoms and signs: how often DID occurs remains difficult to know; a history of severe abuse is thought to be associated with DID (MPD); signs and symptoms of DID include memory lapses, blackouts, being often accused of lying, finding apparently strange items among one’s possessions, having apparent strangers recognize them as someone else, feeling unreal, and feeling like more than one person; individuals with DID often also suffer from other mental illnesses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline and other personality disorders; psychotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of DID and usually involves helping individuals with DID improve their relationship with others, preventing crises, and to experience feelings they are not comfortable with having.
DID is one of the most controversial psychiatric disorders with no clear consensus regarding its diagnosis or treatment. Research on treatment effectiveness still focuses mainly on clinical approaches and case studies. Dissociative symptoms range from common lapses in attention, becoming distracted by something else, and daydreaming, to pathological dissociative disorders. No systematic, empirically-supported definition of “dissociation” exists.
Although neither epidemiological surveys nor longitudinal studies have been done, it is thought DID rarely resolves spontaneously. Symptoms are said to vary over time. In general, the prognosis is poor, especially for those with co-morbid disorders. There is little systematic data on the prevalence of DID. The prevalence of DID increased greatly in the latter half of the 20th century, along with the number of identities (often referred to as “alters”) claimed by patients (increasing from an average of two or three to approximately 16).
Specifically, it is thought that one way that some individuals respond to being severely traumatized as a young child is to wall off, in other words to dissociate, those memories. When that reaction becomes extreme, DID may be the result. As with other mental disorders, having a family member with DID may be a risk factor, in that it indicates a potential vulnerability to developing the disorder but does not translate into the condition being literally hereditary. While there’s no “cure” for dissociative identity disorder, long-term treatment is very successful, if the patient stays committed. Effective treatment includes talk therapy or psychotherapy, medications, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies such as art or movement therapy.